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46                               POLITICAL SCIENCE.
lies from the main land of a superior class. A Venetian
chronicler informs us that magnates and proceres from Aquil-
eia settled in Rivolatum, of whom he gives a list amounting
to fifty-three.* Three dukes reigned from 697 to 737, of
whom the third was killed in a tumult (or civil war, as the
chronicler calls it), in whose place was elected, as an annual
magistrate, a magister militum. The choice of a magistrate
with this name was not strange, for, as Heinrich Leo (Gesch.
Ital., i., 247) expresses himself, i( in the regions of Ravenna
and the Pentapolis magistri militum are spoken of as the
highest political magistrates, and that, interchangeably with
ditces. Perhaps the choice of a new dux was hindered by the
strife of factions only, and the magister militum in Venetia is
put forward, no doubt, as the commander "of the sc/iolce mili-
tum, or military companies, because the higher office was not
yet filled." Officers with this title were at the head of affairs
for five years, and then the son of the slain duke, who was
elected to fill the same office, was blinded and banished.f
It is recorded of the next duke but one, Dominicus Monega-
rius, that two tribunes were associated with him as counsel-
lors, in which we discern that suspicion of the doge which
appears so prominently in later Venetian history.
From the year 811, for more than two centuries members
of three families furnished Venice for the most part with its
chief magistrates. This shows a certain tendency towards
making this life-long office hereditary, or at least that the
doges found it not difficult to secure the office during their
life-time for one of their relatives.. In the eighth century
Venice carried on a commerce with the Saracens of Africa in
Christian slaves, which Pope Zachary (732-751) forbade ; and
* Andrea Dandolo, doge in 1343, in Muratori, Rer. Ital. Scriptores,
xii., 158.
f Dandolo (Mur., xii., 156) mentions that the town of Heraclea,
from which the exiled dukes originated, was destroyed by the Vene-
tians, although some, says he, ascribe the act to Pepin, king of
France. Pepin was in Italy about 754, just before the dtike Deus-
dedit or Diodato was deposed May not the presence of the Franks
in Italy have had something to do with these troubles ?