THE CONSTITUTION OF VENICE. 47 the connection with Egypt is shown in the next century (827) by the transportation of the reliques of St. Mark from Alex- andria. This was under the duke Agnellus Participatius, the same who made Rivoaltum the ducal residence. The sedi- tions and violence against the dukes continued through the ninth and tenth centuries. Peter Candianus, who entered on his office in 942 — the third duke of this family, one of the richest and most magnificent men of his time — is said to have endeavored to make the dukedom hereditary in his family. For this a faction attacked him in the palace, and when they could not get possession, set it on fire ; it was consumed with other buildings, and the duke in attempting to escape was murdered. A document of this time mentions the loss of state-records, and thus throws suspicion on the exactness of Venetian history prior to this date. ____ i Three dukes of the Urseoli family had reigned in succes- sion from 991 to 102$, when the jealousy of the Venetians caused the banishment of Otto Urseolus and his brother, the archbishop of Grado. The family, however, was still powerful, and another member of it, Dominicus, tried to continue the family in the office. But an opposite party suc- ceeded in choosing their candidate, many of the Urseoli were obliged to leave the state, and a law was passed that no duke should associate with himself another person as condux, i. e., co-duke.* This had been the means bv which it had been ^ possible to transmit the office to another member of the same family. Henceforth the duke's power was to be limited by means of_two annually elected counsellors associated with •him. From this time for more than four hundred years, in no instance, we believe, did the same family furnish two dukes to the republic in succession. We may stop at this point where the doge begins to appear in his more modern form and the constitution is passing over, from one in which the people have a direct share, to one in * Dandolo (Mur. u. s.) says, his diebus reperitur statutum nt ^ creandus consortem vel successorem non faciat, nee fieri permittat eo vivente.