56 POLITICAL SCIENCE. Afterwards their number was "fixed at three hundred, of whom one hundred and twenty were elected by the grand council; the rest had their seats by virtue of the offices they held in the state."* Six of their number represented them in the collegio, the " savi grandi " of whom we have spoken. "Their importance seems to have increased as the affairs of Venice became more extensive and complicated, as is shown perhaps by their journals, part of which, in fourteen volumes, before 1331, having disappeared themselves, arc known by indexes only, while from that time to the end of the republic they remain to show the efficiency of this instrument of the administration." , 4. The quarantia, or board of forty, was at first invested with higher criminal jurisdiction, as well as with The quarantia. ,.,..... . . . * . t. ... appellate jurisdiction in civil and smaller cnmmal cases. Three heads or chief justices presided over it, who, as we have seen, formed a part of the doge's council and of the collegio. Among the criminal cases brought before this court would be some of a political character, and from this point its functions went on enlarging, until they included ad- visory powers of various kinds. Propositions coming from the signoria to the great council were submitted to this board for their deliberation and advice. They had a hand in execut- ing and in modifying, if necessary, the law of 1296 relating to the great council. They have been compared with the areo- pagus of Athens. 5. The ten or council often. When Gradenigo was doge, and not long after the aristocratic closing of the The ten, *~* great council, a conspiracy of an alarming char- acter was detected, in which Marino Bocconio and Bajamante Tiepolo were concerned, with a number of others, some of whom have the aristocratic names of Tiepoli, Badoarii, and Qui- rini. The record of this in Dandolo's chronicle is, that in 1308 a Tiepolo, with his accomplices, was banished, and that the council of ten was then instituted against these and others who * Mr. Rawdon Brown, u, s.