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a young lady of the Amidei, to whom he had been betrothed,
and married another from the Guelphic house of the Donati.
He was killed on this account by some of the principal Ghibel-
lines, and thus the strife spread through all the noble families.
It is not our purpose to enter minutely into this long series
of feuds. It is enough to say that through the reign of the
emperor Frederic II., and the interregnum, and long after
emperors succeeded who had friendly relations with the pope,
Tuscany was divided, the towns waged frequent wars with
one another, the principal men of the defeated faction fled
from their homes, or were banished and then lived in exile
until an opportunity offered itself of returning in the army of
a foreign enemy. Nor was the spirit of faction confined to
these two great parties, but new divisions arose in the triumph-
ant party like those of the Bianchi and Ncri at the beginning
of the fourteenth century.
The Guelphs and Ghibellines divided, as Villani (v. 39)
expresses himself, "only in respect to the signoria of the
state, and the church [the emperor and the pope], but as
regarded the condition and welfare of the commune they were
agreed." Neither party strove to abridge the growing indus-
tries of the city, but they were jealous of each other, and
wanted exclusive control. The wealthier, untitlecl class, the
popolani or popolo grasso, were, for some time, not drawn in-
to the strife, although they were in greater part Guelphs, and
felt the importance of keeping on good terms with the pope*
But the nobles were so factious and so unwilling to submit to
law that the wealthy class felt it necessary to get control of
the republic, and finally broke down the power of the nobility
and excluded them from all offices in -the state. This seems
to have been necessary for the prosperity of Florence, but it
was a new tyranny added to the old plague of a factious and
proud nobility.
The Ghibellines gained a great victory over the Guelphs at
Malaperti in 1260, with the help of the German cavalry of
king Manfred, so that the Guelphic families went into exile.
Then Charles of Anjou, brother of Louis IX, of France, was