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CONSTITUTION OF FLORENCE.                       73
been, by the former priors and by certain citizens called richi-
esti from being requested to act with them. After 1286 and
until 1292 they were chosen by the retiring priors and the
heads of the twelve greater guilds. After 1292, were added
to the numbers of electors such wise and good men as the
priors might select. Other changes in the mode of election
of the priors will be noticed in the sequel. The following
persons could not be chosen ;a head of a guild or wise
man called to take part in the election, a kinsman of a prior
who had a part in the election, any one who had been a prior
within two years, any but actual artcfici or members of
the guilds, and a cavalier. If chosen, such a one could
not lawfully serve. The priors during their two months were
to eat and lodge in one house, to hold no discourse with any
one except in a public audience, and not to leave the city.
At the same time when the priorate was instituted, the
nine inferior arts were called into existence and organized
with heads (capitudini), syndics, banners, etc. They were the
wine-dealers; greater taverners ; salt, oil and cheese sellers;
tanners in wholesale ; corslet and sword-makers; lock and
iron-smiths; carnage, target and shield-makers ; cabinet-
makers, in wholesale ; and bakers.
The upper guilds were flourishing under the new govern-
. ordinances of jus-'ment> but the grandi or magnates could not
Hoeing.          gjve Up their feuds, nor could they forget the
times when they were lords of the city and djjpd as they pleased,
while now they were governed. The unquiet and lawless
class made stronger laws necessary ; and so in 1292 some of
the influential men of the popolani united their counsels to
devise some more effectual legislation, which would repress
the violences of the grandi, and keep them from ever again
getting the reins of power into their hands. At their head
wais Giano della Bella, of an old noble family, which had
gone down into one of the guilds. He is charged (Ammirato,
i., 187, book iv.) with resentment against a nobleman, one
of the Frescobaldi, who had grossly insulted him, but the
general voice of historians is in his favor as being a high-