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minded and patriotic man. It is interesting to find also that
Dante, likewise of noble origin but now a popolano, was
invited to these consultations. The first ordinances of 1292,
i. e.t of Jan. 1293 of the new style, were supplemented by
others in subsequent years, especially in 1306, and were re-
peatedly modified afterwards. Sometimes they seem to have
slept unexecuted ; sometimes they awoke to be applied when
the grandi were disorderly ; but they always remained on
the statute book and survived the nobility on whom they
were intended to act, and did act as a check. It would seem
that some of the commotions of the fourteenth century were
due to the desire to restore the old families to power and to
overthrow the ordinances, but the tide was too strong in the
other direction ; many families became popolani which had
belonged to the noblesse ; to be a grandc finally became equiv-
alent to an incapacity for holding political office > and to be
made such was one of the penalties with wliich prominent
citizens were visited by their political enemies. *
The ordinances apply to wrongs committed by grandi and
not to popolani involved in their quarrels, nor to the wrongs
of grandi against their domestics. If a grandc wounds or
kills a popolano the severest and most summary justice must
be administered by the podesta (passim). No composition
between them and injured parties is allowed. Proof by an
injured party's oath can be admitted, or, if he be dead, by the
testimony of his nearest relatives and of three witnesses de-
claring what is public fame. (Rubr. 6.) Wounds injuring a
limb subject a grande to the payment of two hundred florins,
* All the historians refer to these ordinances. So also does Hull-
man in his Stadtewesen der Mittelatt, iii., 435-438. 1 have found
Capponi's account of some of their contents the best (i,, 93, 94). I
have also had in my hands, kindly lent by the superintendent of the
Boston Public Library, Bonaini's publication of the first and incomplete
Latin draft of the ordinances with protocols, etc., and the Italian
redaction of 1324 given out by Emiliani Giudici, in an appendix to
his Storia dei Mnnicipi Italiani (pp. 302-422), which also contains the
statutes of the guild of Calimala. Finally, an excellent programme of
Prof. C, Hegel (Erlangen, 1867) has been of great use to me*