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CONSTITUTION OF FLORENCE,                       75
and his hand is to be cut off if he fails to pay the money with-
in ten days. If a grande has paid only part of his fine, his
sureties—it would seem that every grande was required to
have sureties for his peaceable behavior—are to pay the
rest. If it surpasses the amount for which they gave security,
a father must pay for a son, a son for a father, a brother for
a brother, being his father's son, and so on. (Rubr. 80.)
'Other provisions keep the grandi out from all places and
offices except the councils of the commune, or exclude them
from the registers of citizens between sixteen and seventy.
(Rubr. 58.) Penalties were imposed on a podesta who neg-
lected his duty in respect to the ordinances. The grandi
could not accuse nor bear witness nor appear in court against
popolani, without consent of the priors. (Rubr. 43 in Cap-
poni.) They were not allowed to live within one hundred and
fifty ells of a bridge, nor leave their houses in a time of up-
roar, nor appear at weddings or funerals with armed retainers.
(Rubr. 49-50, ibid.) These may suffice to show the spirit of
these strange ordinances, passed by the most enlightened
men of Florence, Dante probably being one, and by the pub-
lic councils.
To aid in the execution of these laws a gonfaloniere della
Gonjaioniere deiia g^stizia was appointed, who was to belong to
giustizia.               one Qf ttie greater guilds, to have a vote with
the priors, and to pertain to no house from which any of the
priors came. This office was to last two months like theirs,
and to be filled successively by persons from the six wards of
the city. He was elected by the retiring board of priors and
certain assistants. He had in charge the gonfalon of the
people and a body of elected foot soldiers was under his com-
mand, which consisted first of one thousand, then was en-
larged by one thousand, and in 1295 by two thousand more.
And similar regulations in regard to the county and district
of Florence were made at the same time, the intention being,
apparently, to have a militia ready on any disturbance pro-
ceeding from the grandi.
The gonfaloniere of justice being at the head of the city