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78                               POLITICAL SCIENCE.

new board was chosen early in November to take their place ,
the many exiled Neri, and among them the head of the party,
Corso Donati, returned without law : soon the whole city
was filled with confusion and Charles left the city to return to
France. Many sentences of banishment were issued against
the Bianchi during his stay, and after his departure (1301-
1302). The pacification effected by Cardinal da Prato (1304)
brought back a degree of peace, which was more likely to be
permanent when the lawless Corso Donati, condemned as a
rebel and traitor, was slain in 1308.

The presence in Italy of the Emperor Henry VIL (1310-
1313) led to the appointment of Robert, then duke of Cala-
bria, as signer of the city of Florence for five years, on condi-
tion, however, of making no changes in the government
except that of putting his own vicars in the place of podcstas.
His authority was afterwards prolonged until 1322. This
plan was thought necessary on account of the formidable
Ghibelline leaders in Pisa and Lucca, the latter of whom,
Castruccio Castruccani, died in 1328 about the same time
with the duke of Calabria. At this time two changes were
made in the constitution which call for our attention — the
simplification of the councils and the squittinio, as it was
called, from the Latin scrutinium, united with the drawing1
of magistrates1 names by lot.


The councils of Florence had been before this five in num-

Counciis.     ber> besides the collegi of the priors.    They

were the council of one hundred, the oldest of

all, a smaller and a larger council of the commune, ninety and

three hundred ^respectively, presided over by the podestu,

and two councils of the people (or of the capitano and heads


* This change seems to be that which Dante has in his mind (as
bcheffer-Boichorst, in his Flor. Stud., 212, shows) in Pure. vL near

fhf» t*r\rt                                                                              '               °         '

—che fai tanto sottili
Provyedimenti, clie a mezzo Novembre
Non giunje quel die tu d' Ottobre fill.