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generated would have found no satisfaction in entrusting
others with the power of ultimate decision on political ques-
tions.    There is a good deal to be said in favor of the educa-
tion furnished by the old assemblies of the people, by their
active co-operation in politics  and judicial  affairs, by their
responsibility in person for the public welfare, by their train-
ing through the eye and the ear on the pnyx and in the di-
castery, rather than by hearing meagre reports of \vhat per-
sons supposed to be wiser than  they had  done for them.
The persons who could listen with pleasure to the orations
of Demosthenes before the people, or to his and the other
leading Athenian orations in public and private suits—they
for whom the compact pleas of Isasus on questions of inheri-
tance were written, must have had an education superior in
some important respects to any which modern limes afford.
I ask myself while writing these words in a city of a free re-
public, where there are some twelve thousand qualified voters,
whether our modern system, which entrusts public business
to others, trains up men as shrewd, as interested in public
affairs, as capable of entering into complicated arguments on
cases of law as the Athenians seem to have been, and  the
answer must be in the negative.    And yet there arc probably
three times as many able to read and write in this modern
city of smaller size than there were among the twenty thou-
sand citizens of Athens.   The advantages then are not all on
one side.   In the change from a city-state to a common-
wealth of great extent, we sacrifice something while we gain
much.   What we sacrifice has already been hinted at.    We
lose our interest in political life and a certain active patriotism
which loves the state for itself and not for its benefits ; we
lose to a considerable extent our sense of responsibility as
citizens ; we lose our political training ; we lose\our relative
value as political units.    What is a vote worth, Subjectively
considered, when it is one of a million, compared to a vote
in a little republic of ten or twenty thousand citizens.    The
mass of our political equals contracts the bulk of each of us in
a great democracy ; hence, multitudes will not go to the polls