DEMOCRACY AND DEMOCRACIES. 10$ in this country, because a vote more or less among so many will be of no account. It ought to be said, however, that these advantages of unrepresented democracies were counterbalanced by great evils. In the first place, slaves and citizens seemed both to be necessary in the ancient system. The greater part of the industrial classes in a city democracy must have been almost exclusively devoted to labors which gave no training to the mind. Out of five men addicted to labor, four were inca- pacitated to exercise political rights, the remaining" one-fifth comprehended the intelligence and breadth of view of the whole. How to secure a government against immense masses of ignorant citizens would have been a greatónay, an unsolv- able problem. Further, the close contiguity of men in a city- state gave room for combinations and conspiracies, which might be aided from abroad ; to clubs for mutual assistance in getting office, to factions leading to tyranny or intestine war. And again, the intense excitements of the assembly were often such as we have no conception of in modern times ; the nearest approach to them is found in municipal assem- blies where taxes are to be voted, or in elections for munici- pal officers, when there are strong parties formed for some temporary purpose. These, however, are nothing compared with the political agitations of ancient city-states. On no arena in modern states can oratory excite to such a de- gree as it did in the little ancient republic. Nowhere arc examples to be found of suspicion, hatred, lawlessness so ex- treme. With the strong interest in the state and in political life, the desire would grow to have a share in public office, at least in these forms of government where office was open to all In a large state there will be office-seekers, but the ratio of places to citizens is much less than in a small one. It is this desire that especially recommended the lot at Athens and in other extreme democracies, as Aristotle remarks; and this may have led to the great multiplication of offices for which Athens was remarkable.