I0g POLITICAL SCIENCE. * and righteousness * to have its course was overawed and de- feated. The forms ia the way of altering1 a constitution are the best sedative for an over-excited state of the popular mind. It may be said, indeed, that two-thirds, or any other number which admits the possibility of change, is unjust, as blocking the action of a people by a small minority. It is remarkable, however, how small a weight this complaint has in our coun- try, where the rights of the majority, and the rights of all to suffrage, are generally admitted. No one among us, unless a fanatic, believes in any right to alter the constitution of a state or the country whenever a majority demand it. On the other hand, the reasons which recommend a constitution make it necessary that a certain permanence should be given to this instrument beyond that which ordinary laws or acts need, because all calculations for the future depend on such stability. It is, therefore, an act of self-preservation for a so- ciety to make a constitution somewhat difficult to alter. The city-states felt this, yet had no effectual provision against change within their reach. "2. The representative system. In addition to the remarks made in another place, we say here that the ob- Representa toons. . A ' ject of a deliberative law-making assembling is to find out first of all what is the highest good, within the reach of political measures, for a whole community, and not what will suit the greatest number of constituents. The dele- gates are sent to advise with one another, and are not, in the proper sense, delegates of parts or of parties, but belong all to the whole country ; so that, if they were chosen by a small aristocracy, It would be a crime to consult the interests of that aristocracy rather than the wants of the whole commu- nity. It is the whole, the organized community, the political body, which appears in the halls of legislatures. But as the political body consists of parts, each of them having interests * I write this, aware what an eminent historian has said to the con- trary.