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JI2                             POLITICAL SCIENCE.
to extend it, or to make it at least less efficient. Aristotle
mentions some of these devices (Pol., vi. or iv., 10,  5 and
onw.}. Many, says he, "even of those who aim to make
polities aristocratic, commit an error not only in giving the
wealthy more than their share, but also in deceiving the
plcbs ; for in time it is necessary that out of good falsehoods
evil truth should grow, since the ambitious desires of the
rich do more harm than those of the people." He then
speaks of five sophistical artifices in dealing with the people,
having reference to the assembly, the magistrates, the courts
of justice, the wearing of heavy armor, and the exercises in
the gymnasia. The first ruse, that in regard to the assembly,
was to impose a fine for non-attendance, either on the rich
alone, or a greater fine on them than on others. Next it was
made easy for the poor to be excused from office by a sworn
statement of the inconvenience (e^oiwvafeai), but for the other
class it continued difficult. " In respect to serving in the dic-
asteries, a fine was imposed in the same way on the wealthy
for failure in this duty, but the poor were free to perform
it or not; or a large fine was imposed on the former and a
small fine on the latter, as was the case in the laws of. Cha-
rondas. In some places, all who got themselves registered
had a right to participate in the duties of the assembly and
of the courts, and heavy fines were levied upon those who
after registration failed to do their duties in either of these
places, it being the object that the fine might keep citizens
from being registered, and that when not registered they
might be kept from the ecclesia and the dicasteries." Simi-
lar was the legislation in regard to owning heavy armor, which
allowed the poor not to own it and fined the rich if they did
not; and which fined the latter for not sharing in gymnastic
exercises, while the poor could be excused from them. Such
laws acted unequally on the two classes, with the evident in-
tention of keeping the one away from political life and of un-
fitting them for military duties, in order that they might not
exercise their rights, and also that the others might be active
citizens and soldiers. In democracies, he adds, the sophisms