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DEMOCRACY  AND  DEMOCRACIES.                     113

— or devices to throw the greater weight of power upon one
class rather than on the other— are of just the contrary kind :
the less wealthy get pay for their attendance in the ecclesia
and the courts of justice, while the rich stay away without
being fined. Hence, it is evident that, if there were a due
mixture of political expedients, the rich ought to be fined
for staying away and the poor paid for coming ; all would
then'have an active share in the government, while, where
the devices spoken of arc used, only one part has it in their

When there was no balancing or controlling oligarchic
principle, especially where such a principle had been over-
come after a struggle or a haughty abuse of power, the suf-
frage was extended to all free native citizens and to their
sons from an early age. Universal suffrage was a thing
necessary for a city-state when democracy had become domi-
nant, that is, where there was no class in other respects privi-

Of the Roman constitution it is enough here to say that
Democratic insti- t'ic P'*111 °^ classes, with centuries containing
todontatRome. an uncqual number of voters, had the effect
that the centuries of the higher classes or the more wealthy
citizens, although casting a smaller number of votes, if unani-
mous, could always elect their candidate, since a majority not
of votes, but of centuries, decided. And as the centuries
of the higher classes were called first, it might be that an
election was certain without calling for the suffrages of the
lower classes, which must have lessened the interest of the
more humble citizens in the elections
The principle which here prevailed, of determining elections
by the majority of centuries within classes, entered into the
reformed comitia in such a shape as to unite the voting by
tribes and by centuries together. There remained still the
centuries of cquites, although they did not vote first, and
every one of the five classes had thirty-five centuries of jun»
VOL, n, — 8