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I20                             POLITICAL SCIENCE.
multiplying accusations for political offences (which, however,
had the advantage of pitting demagogue'against demagogue),
in requiring the rich to contribute to the pleasure of the
people in sundry expensive shows, and to bear burdensome
public services. The tendency towards the same extreme
appears in modern times in ways like these : (i) In the prin-
ciple that the representative is bound to obey the will of his
constituents. A very great power is given to the representa-
tive, and the check which has been most generally applied is
to control him by the public will, by the expectations and fear
of the displeasure of the community. Thus his will must be
curbed by the will of others, when, by the very nature of the
case, a moral responsibility rests on him which no others can
relieve him of or assume. (2.) It is seen in the doctrine of
rotation of office. An ordinary man of business would pre-
fer to continue a capable agent in his service, until he mis-
trusted his fidelity. But the frequent change of functiona-
ries follows the opinion that every one has a certain right
to office, and so all who desire it ought to be gratified. Con-
nected with this is (3) the removal from inferior offices in
changes of party, which is doing so much mischief in making
politics mercenary and in binding men together by the most
selfish ties. (4.) Another great evil among us, the abridge-
ment of the term of judicial office, and the election of the
judges by the people, while it may have come into vogue
from the fact that occasionally incompetent judges had to be
endured until they were superannuated, seems to be owing
to.the pseudo-democratical principle that the people's will in
regard to officers ought to be carried out, as far as possible,
by an election of judges, in which they shall have a voice,
Whereas, of all functionaries of government, judges ought to
be chosen with the least regard to their political character
and the most to their integrity. But the people know
those who are candidates for the office of judge only on the
political side; and those who conduct caucuses and manage
nominations look mainly at rewards for such as have labored
m the service of the party. The people want good judges,