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but they are incompetent to decide who has the right judicial
qualifications. There has been a sad falling down at the very
point where it is the highest interest of every government,
under whatever political form it is classified, to keep official
character pure. The short term of the judges, also, seems
to have no good reason for it ; for a man with a judicial ex-
perience of six, eight or ten years, has just laid the founda-
tion for an understanding of law and a skill in deciding cases,
which would be worth much more to the state than the ap-
prentisage, as it may be called, of his first years. If we
have the right view of a state of things which is now very
general, a lawyer who is prominent among or a favorite of
the politicians, accepts the office as a means of acquiring a
little more respectability, and expects, by being known as an
ex-judge, to succeed better as a counsellor for the rest of his
life. And so it must happen, even if under this system no
charges could be made against the judges, that their dignity
must sink in public estimation, and that they will be no longer
looked on as the representatives of public righteousness and
equity, but as men who came with no great repute of wisdom
or justice upon the bench, in consequence of the action of a
party with which they were connected, Can this gross mis-
take in regard to the appointment of judges fail of being cor-
rected, or must it continue and bear even worse fruits than
we have yet seen.
(5). Behind all this lies what we may call the caucus sys-
tem, which includes all needed arrangements for
Caucus system.          .                                                                                
bringing a set of candidates under the advocacy
of the leaders of the party, as the regularly nominated ones,
before the people. This mode of party action is not essential
to the existence of parties. There must be parties in a free
community, and they must endeavor to act together. There
are parties as strictly separated by some kind of lines in Great
Britain as ours in the United States. But they do not have
the same compact organization, nor do the chief workers in
them generally work for the rewards of a party triumph,
nor have they the same prescriptive principles with our par-