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I24                             POLITICAL SCIENCE.
either obliged to serve at their own charges in war as horse-
men or hoplites, or, as was the case with the third class, as
heavy-armed soldiers only. The thetes had a place in the
public assembly, and, ere long, at least in the courts ; and
were called on to serve as paid troops in the army or the
The senate (ftovkfj) consisted of four hundred   chosen in
equal numbers  out of the then  existing four
Senate or boule.    ^^ ^ ^ ^ 5^^ three upper propcrty.
classes, The relations of this senate to the ecclesia seem to
have been much the same as they were under the full devel-
opment of the democracy, with somewhat more of authority
on their part, or of less on the part of the assembled people.
The administration of justice was committed to the various
magistrates, especially to the nine archons who had each his
special competence. The magistrate decided cases himself,
or referred them to a judge ; and with this there was a right
of appeal to larger courts selected from among the citizens—
but how selected, by choice or lot, it is uncertain.* Criminal
cases were in part brought before the old courts of the
Ephetae, to whom was added a council composed of life-long
members and supplied out of the board of archons, when
their year was out, if they had served without censure. This
board or council of the Areopagus had, with certain criminal
jurisdiction, a supervision over magistrates, over the public
assemblies, the morals and manners of the community.
In this constitution there was no extreme ; it was rather dic-
tated by a spirit of compromise, and of equity as Solon viewed
equity. And such seems to have been the character of this
singularly upright, unambitious man. His words, quoted by
Plutarch (in vit., ch. 18), show his temper. He gave the
people, he says, so much power as sufficed for them, neither
taking away privilege from them, nor holding out more of it
* Comix Schomann, Griech. Alterth., i., 333. As for the rest of
what is said on the constitutions of Athens, I must refer the reader
to Schom. u s., C. F. Hermann, Griech, Antiq,, Part i., § 106 et seq.,
to Thirlwall, Grote, and E. Curtius,