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Full text of "Political Science Of The State"

DEMOCRACY AND  DEMOCRACIES.                    12$
"They who had power and were admired for their wealth,
for them also I planned that they should have nothing that
was uriseemly. I stood holding a strong shield around both,
and suffered neither to have the ascendancy without justice/'
This endeavor to legislate for the times, to produce a bal-
changes after So- ance between classes without  a fixed political
Ion-                  doctrine, proved abortive.    The eupatridse were
still strong ; party and local strife were not extinguished.
The Pisistratidae had their day like other high-minded tyrants
of the better sort elsewhere, until at length the legislation of
Clisthenes laid the foundation of a strictly democratic consti-
tution. The substance of Solon's laws was retained by the
Pisistratidse, but the eupatridae, who with Isagoras for a time
gained the chief power In the state after their fall, would not,
probably if they had been able, have allowed the constitution
to continue as it was. In fact, the equilibrium of Solon was
impossible. The first measure showing the democratic policy
of Clisthenes was to give citizenship to a considerable num-
ber of strangers, slaves, and denizens. (Aristot., PoL, iii., r,
 10). Another more important one was to abolish the old
division of the people into four tribes, and to substitute for
them ten new ones, which were subdivided into five naukra~
riae each, and into ten demi.    The tribes had
Demi.
no special political importance, except that of
breaking up the old territorial divisions which had aided the
influence of the aristocracy. The domes (townships answer-
ing to the word comv, as used by the Dorians, according to
Aristot. Poet., 3, 6), originally a hundred in number, became
afterwards one hundred and seventy-four, and in order to
keep the tribes about equal, were shifted from one to another
tribe so that they had no necessary territorial connection*
Nor did the residents within the territory of a dcme belong
to it as a matter of course. The children pertained to the
deme of the father wherever they lived, unless they passed
into another such community through adoption. The denies
were political unions and not properly religious; they kept
registers of their members, and no one could be a citizen who
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