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I26                            POLITICAL SCIENCE.      -
was not on these books, or whose name had been erased from
them as being inscribed by fraud. The local divisions, as they
ultimately appear, tended to destroy all local centres of union
and all the old local political feeling, and to make Athens in
a more eminent sense the capital of Attica than it had been
With the division into ten tribes the number of the senate
was changed from four to five hundred, fifty from each tribe,
and the members in the colleges of magistrates were changed
in the same ratio.
In the time of Clisthenes the use of the lot instead of elec-
tion was introduced, and continued through the
whole period of Athenian freedom. This was
not, however, simply an extreme democratic measure, as if
every citizen had a right to office and increased his chance by
taking it out of the control of the will of others.- We should
expect will to have the fullest sway in the form of government
which was founded on the pleasure of the mass of the people.
The lot must rather have been intended to prevent, as far as
was possible, political clubs and combinations (eraipeicu)
from interfering with the freedom of elections, and was due to
the memory of the factions which had so much harmed Attica.
It was so managed that the names only of those who pre-
sented themselves for the purpose were taken into account;
and so it might happen that important men, like Themisto-
cles or Aristides, might be drawn into the archonship because,
when they wished the office, few who confided in them would
be candidates against them. The lot, again, secured the state
from cabals the more, because the colleges of public officers
were often composed of ten or more, and the functions of
officers were greatly subdivided. But, with great good sense,
the Athenians elected, instead of drawing lots for, some of the
principal officers, such as the ten generals and the treasurer
of the city; nor were they apt to apply the lot in the case
of extraordinary and occasional functionaries, such as am-
bassadors. Upon the whole it seems probable that the lot
saved the city-state from some evils, and it is certain that the