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DEMOCRACY AND  DEMOCRACIES.                   I2/
influence of leading men like Pericles was not impaired by it.
But it was a great political error to create by lot the nine
archons who had the most important judicial duties to per-
form, and  the  importance   of the senate would  have been
advantageously increased by another method of selection.
The ostracism, also, was a measure of Clisthenes or of his
time.    Its object was to remove for a period'of
Ostracism*                                                       .          .                              .             .   t ,    ,
ten years a prominent citizen, who might be-
come so strong as to take the government into his hands, as
Pisistratus had done in the preceding age. The rights of the
ostracized person were only suspended, his property was un-
touched, and on his return he was admissible into any office.
But it was unrighteous in itself, and when the two-handed
engine came upon the heads of demagogues it fell into disuse..
Thus, as a measure dictated by suspicion, it was dcmocratical,
and yet the suspicion was in a degree justified. It did not
belong to extreme democracy, for in the later times of Athens,
which leaned in that direction, other ways of reaching politi-
cal men were brought into use.
Athens, as Clisthenes left it and the Persian wars found it,
was a noble state, and through its heroic struggles in the first
of those wars was fitted for the position of head of Greece.
When its best citizen, Aristides, after the great invasion, car-
ried the proposition to open the power of holding office to all
Equality as to hold- the classes of citizens, to the thct® as well as to
mg office.             tjie three classes of landowners, this was justified
at least by gratitude for what all the citizens had done to save
the country, and was recommended also by this consideration,
that multitudes who before had been capable of holding office
or had been officers, had been stripped of their all in the burn-
ing and ravaging of Athens.* And the measure was further
defensible on the ground that personal property, acquired in
trade and manufactures, must have increased considerably
since the time of Solon, so that the propriety of a land basis
* Comp. Pint. Aristid. 22, and for the view of Schomann against
Grote, here followed, his Gr. Alt*, i., 340, and his criticism on Grate
in his Verfassungsgesch. Athens. (1854.)