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128                             POLITICAL SCIENCE.
for suffrage could now with reason become doubtful. On
the other hand, there would be no great pressure of the poorer
class into office so long as its duties were discharged without
But, whether just or not, this measure marks the direction
' DemocLyin the which the Athenian constitution was now taking.
time of Pericles. g^jj more decisively do the measures of Pericles
and his friends in the next age show a democratic advance.
These were: first, the pay given to those who were present in
the ecclesia—if they chose to draw it—or who did service
as dikasts in the courts ; secondly, the theoric money given
out of the public treasury to pay for seats in the theatre and
for other shows; and thirdly, the abridgment of the duties
of the Areopagus, so that thenceforth it lost its supervision
over morals and public officers, and was confined principally
to the duty of acting as a court in cases of murder and of cer-
tain other high crimes. After the fall of the thirty tyrants
the Areopagus recovered part of its police and censorial
We have thus traced the constitution of Athens until it
reached the condition of a complete democracy without any
other strong opposing elements to contend with. And this
absence of internal strife was its great good fortune, an ad-
vantage denied to many other states of Greece where the oli-
garchy and the democracy in their strife brought untold mis-
ery on the people, Athens, with all its political defects, was
a republic where there were no wholesale cancellings of debts
after the time of Solon, no attempts to overthrow the govern-
ment, no conspirators relying on foreign aid, no street fights,
no wholesale judicial murders, unless the doings of the thirty
tyrants were an exception. Compared with Florence it was
a haven of rest.
The prominent article of the constitution—if so we may
Laws and pse- call  it—was, that while the people was the
pmsmata.                                       -                                 .                   ,                         ,      .
source of power, no law and no resolution
(psephisma) could originate in the assembly, A resolution
must have been first proposed in the senate, and reported to