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Full text of "Political Science Of The State"



without pay. It was certainly not unfair, if the judges
should not consist mainly of wealthy men—of whom prob-
ably a sufficient number could not be found for this purpose,
especially as they were called into the fleet or the army in
the Peloponnesian war—to give a small dole of one obolus,
per diem, to those who served the state in this capacity.
This pay, instituted by Pericles (Aristot. Pol., ii., 9, § 3),
was increased to three oboli by Cleon, as Boeckh tries to
show (Staatshaush., ii., 14). This increase, if the pay was
one obol at first, was not unjust, when the war drove many
into the city and prices grew higher. In the same way the
pay for being at an assembly was one obolus at first and
afterwards three, the change being made by the influence of
the demagogue Agyrrhius about 390 B. C., some time after
the end of the Peloponnesian war.
The philosophers who lived soon after Pericles ascribe to
Effects  of this him a corrupting influence on account of this
^                measure.     Plato makes  Socrates   say in  the
Gorgias (515 E) that he " made the Athenians lazy, cowardly,
talkative and greedy of money by first bringing them to the
taking of pay for the performance of political duties." And
Aristotle says that " Ephialtes abridged the powers of the
council on the Areopagus, and Pericles gave pay to the
courts. Thus it is that each one of the demagogues ad-
vanced and strengthened the democracy until it reached its
present condition." (Pol., ii., 9, § 3.) " This seems to have
gone on, not according to the design of Solon, but to have
come about by accident For the demits, having become
the cause of the naval supremacy in the times of the Median
wars, grew proud and took for itself corrupt demagogues,
the upright men being on the opposite side in politics."
(u, s. § 4.) The Wasps of Aristophanes also abound in
references to the political side of the judicial system. The
members of the chorus exhort one another to " hurry on, for
Laches has got to take it, and all say that he has a hoard
of money. Cleon, therefore, yesterday bade us come in sea-
son with a provision of three days' fierce wrath against him