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of Athens, of the sea-states, their confederates, than was ex-
ercised by Sparta in her supremacy. Nor were the rich at
home more bled for public uses than they could bear, for
otherwise the state would have soon sunk, but it was for them
a, pleasant home as it was for the poor and for the crowds of
aliens. And we must not forget, in estimating the policy of
ancient states according to its moral character, that the sense
of personal rights over against the interests of the whole com-
munity, or of the leading element in it, was but small.

We close what we have to say on democratic states with
_ .    ,         the mention of some particulars  wherein  the
Modern aemocra-                                                           *
cy and ancient.      modern democracy differs   from  the  ancient.
And here it may be doubted whether modern democracy
may be spoken of as a genus without noticing the differences
between the manifestation of its spirit in different countries.
The great contrast between the latest forms is that between
the French type and the type in the United States.    And
here we cannot separate the genius of the two races from the
color which their attempts at constructing new governments
have taken.    Equally important is it also to estimate the
bearing of their past political habits upon their judgments
when they were called upon to build up new fabrics of gov-
ernment.    The French, after their work of destruction was
over, had no habits of self-government to start with upon a
new career.   That was the crime of the old regime that it put
out of the way what it could of self-government, and lived on
amid changes of opinion as to all subjects of thought, blind in
regard to tendencies until the tendencies could not be con-
trolled.   The inheritance of the French democrats consisted in
theories of rights, in letting speculation preside over the work
of reconstructing society.    The American change of forms—
I refer to the colonies' entire independence on the mother
country, and to the union of states — was altogether different
The colonies had been used to self-government in the minor
divisions of the communities and in the general affairs of the