DEMOCRACY AND DEMOCRACIES. 139 colonies themselves. Those colonies vhich had governors appointed by the crown were self-governing in all things else ; the few that chose their own chief magistrate were practically independent, with only a possible interference on the part of the crown owing to violations of their charters. They all made their own laws, laid taxes, elected their own represen- tatives, coined money, contracted debts, established chartered companies ; and some of the oldest had an established church, limited only by the toleration act of William III. Thus when a crisis came they had all necessary political habits, the knowledge of English precedents, and a reliance on the ex- perience of many years' contest with trials incident to new settlements. Add to this that partial confederations had pointed the way to concerted action whenever the times should call for it. (Comp. § 212, beginning.) The difficulties of the French in reconstruction were many times greater than those of the United States. Both had to resort during their revolutions to paper money, and both were bankrupt. But France had powerful classes to contend with ; a vast peasantry, which had been religiously trained under despotical power, to be secured for the revolution; vast bodies having an interest unlike that of the revolutionists, to be watched or driven out; and then all Europe in arms against the fanatical spread of the new ideas. Nothing of this existed on the western side of the Atlantic. The people were sub- stantially one. No religious, nor, at that time, social or sec- tional differences divided them. There was little of furor in the movement. Practical ends, with a feeling that they were injured in their rights as Englishmen, nerved them for the war. They fought religiously, and a regiment went from one quarter with the minister of the parish where many of the men were recruited for their chaplain. They carried away from the war no hatred of the mother country, although it must be confessed that the impressment of seamen by Great Britain and a great infusion of disaffected persons from abroad after- wards, to a considerable extent, changed their feeling of re- gard for the land of the ancestors.