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Full text of "Political Science Of The State"



BESIDES the states which we have now considered, as hav-
- ing a simple form of polity, there are those
which may be called composite or compound.
By this term, which we venture to use as including for con-
venience a number of forms of union between political parts
under one whole, we do not intend to express any logical
order or close connection of the different unions which will
come before our view, but only to arrange them under a not
inapposite general term. Among these forms confederations
would take the precedence historically; but we prefer an-
other order, especially for the reason that the earlier confed-
erations did not reach the solidity of states, being no more, the
greater part of them, than mere leagues. On the other hand,
all the great empires formed by conquest embrace under one
head a number of states having little or no coherence with
one another, except as being all under one head. And the
relation to the head may have been not very close, nothing
perhaps, besides acknowledging the great conqueror as their
lord, and paying him a tribute. The national feelings of
the conquered, or the difficulties in the ruling country, or the
ambition of a deposed line may have broken that union, and
rendered another conquest necessary for its restoration. The
history of conquests makes up a large part of our knowledge
of some nations. Thus, the annals opened to us at the pres-
ent day, by the scholars who have deciphered and revealed
Assyrian history, reveal conflicts often repeated by the kings
of that country over a multitude of little states, many of which
cannot now even be identified. Tribute in great part is the