COMPOSITE GOVERNMENTS. 147 end, the kinglets of native stock are often continued, or on a second rebellion they are taken captives and another line put in their place ; but, in general, the usages, the religion, the language, and all that constitutes nationality except self-gov- ernment, remained as before. Sometimes, when a conquered province had been very rebellious, or lay in a position where it could impede the conqueror's progress, the cruel expedi- ent was adopted, which Assyria and Babylon tried with the Jews and others, of deportation to another territory, where, although living to a degree together, they could not be dangerous.* This is the first form of compound governments, where provinces or nationalities are conquered, bttt not absorbed nor incorporated into the conquering nation. The good effects of such a connection cannot be very great for there is no unifying process going forward, and no such was aimed at. It no doubt was important for the commerce of the world that through the sway of large states over weak ones, men could travel and trade with more safety over large territories, but no institutions, no awakening of the human mind come directly from such movements. The relations between a state and another organized body or another state, included in this chapter, may be reduced to unions which implied subjection of one party, and those formed on terms of equality. Under the first of these divisions, may be arranged that condition of things which allowed a conquered or protected state some degree of self-government, whether under independent rulers or in the form of provinces ; and that relation of a mother-country to its colonies in which a greater or a less degree of self-government is accorded to them. In the second class, confederations in their two forms may be placed, together with states otherwise nearly or quite separate, except that they are under a common sovereign, * For the Assyrian history, Geo. Smith's Assurbanipal, and especi- ally J. Menant's " Annales des rois d'Assyrie" (Paris, 1874), may be consulted. This work gives a lively picture of conquests of the same territory made over and over again.