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COMPOSITE  GOVERNMENTS.                         147
end, the kinglets of native stock are often continued, or on a
second rebellion they are taken captives and another line put
in their place ; but, in general, the usages, the religion, the
language, and all that constitutes nationality except self-gov-
ernment, remained as before. Sometimes, when a conquered
province had been very rebellious, or lay in a position where
it could impede the conqueror's progress, the cruel expedi-
ent was adopted, which Assyria and Babylon tried with the
Jews and others, of deportation to another territory, where,
although living to a degree together, they could not be
This is the first form of compound governments, where
provinces or nationalities are conquered, bttt not absorbed nor
incorporated into the conquering nation. The good effects
of such a connection cannot be very great for there is no
unifying process going forward, and no such was aimed at.
It no doubt was important for the commerce of the world
that through the sway of large states over weak ones, men
could travel and trade with more safety over large territories,
but no institutions, no awakening of the human mind come
directly from such movements.
The relations between a state and another organized body
or another state, included in this chapter, may be reduced to
unions which implied subjection of one party, and those formed
on terms of equality. Under the first of these divisions, may
be arranged that condition of things which allowed a conquered
or protected state some degree of self-government, whether
under independent rulers or in the form of provinces ; and
that relation of a mother-country to its colonies in which a
greater or a less degree of self-government is accorded to
them. In the second class, confederations in their two forms
may be placed, together with states otherwise nearly or quite
separate, except that they are under a common sovereign,
* For the Assyrian history, Geo. Smith's Assurbanipal, and especi-
ally J. Menant's " Annales des rois d'Assyrie" (Paris, 1874), may be
consulted. This work gives a lively picture of conquests of the same
territory made over and over again.