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From the latter those organizations differ, where sovereign
and legislature are common to two or more states, and all
things tend to bring them into one consolidated form. Swe-
den and Norway since 1814, Great Britain and Ireland, after
the union of 1800, may serve as types of the former ; the
three constituent parts of the United kingdom of Great Bri-
tain and Ireland, of the latter. As this kind of union is rare
and of little practical importance, we may pass it by in
We will look first at the compages of the Persian empire,
and, in passing, at the Macedonian system in regard to subject
states ; then somewhat more at large at the plan of Rome in
regard to her colonies and conquests. In modern times the
policy of Spain and England will call for our attention, after
which the principal subject of this chapter, confederations,
will be considered.
Under Darius Hystaspes, the administration of the empire
took  the shape which it retained ever after-
Persian empire.                                                                                      ,.   .  .
wards. In the year 515 B. C., a division of the
dominions was made into twenty provinces, the presiding
officer over each of which was called a satrap or protector of
the country.* Some of these satrapies were vast in extent
and population ; thus Assyria and Babylonia formed one,
and -^Egypt with Cyrene and Barca another. Subordinate
divisions were made in some of them, and their principal
officer received the name of a peckah, which is applied to
Zerubbabel and Nehemiah, governors of Judah, and may be
the origin of the modern title of pasha. The satraps would
have become independent sovereigns, if care had not been
taken first to appoint to this office, for the most part, Persians
educated at the court, and then to inspect their administra-
tion continually both in public and in secret ways. An un-
* Bertheaii on Ezra viii., 36, interprets the Persian word Kshatra-
pavan as meaning guardian of the land ; Duncker, Gesch. d. Al-
terth., 11., 890, as guardian of the kingdom. Col. Rawlinson derives
it from Kshatram, crown or empire, and pa, keeper, preserver.
Comp. Prof. Rawlinson's note on Herodot., i., 192.