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COMPOSITE  GOVERNMENTS.                         IS I
of Alexander went far beyond that of the Persian kings, in
respect to the founding of cities, seventy-two of which  are
said by Plutarch to have  owed   their origin  to him.    But
these  or  as  many as he  planted, for the number may be
a gross exaggeration (Comp.   Grote, xii., 360),  were built
chiefly for military security, and not with the direct purpose
of Hellenizing the conquered provinces.    Seleucus Nicator,
to whom Syria and all the east at length fell, divided up his
realm into seventy-two satrapies, and established colonies on
an extensive scale.    That under the Syrian kings Hellenic
culture penetrated to some degree into the remote east, may
be gathered even from the style of the coins there found.
But Seleucus and his successors governed through Greeks,
and did not aim to conciliate their oriental subjects, so that
their hold on the east was of short duration.    Alexander, on
the other hand, would have endeavored to suit his adminis-
tration to his oriental position and subjects, and would have
disgusted his Greeks, as indeed he did disgust them, by his
oriental pride and luxury before his death.
The Romans conquered an immense number of nationali-
ties, and pursued a policy at once steady and
The Romans.          1           ,           ,         .                                 r,         .
adapted to the circumstances of the time and
the conquered people. At an early period colonies of Roman
citizens were established on newly acquired territory in Italy,
originally along the coast, to serve at once as supports of
Roman power and as helps to the poorer classes in the parent
state. Almost always a colony was sent to a place formerly
occupied and was not altogether a new foundation. Dionys.
Hal., ii.,  16, represents the policy to have been "not to
visit the captured cities with wholesale slaughter, but to send
settlers into them on condition of holding a certain portion-
of the lands, and to make the places thus conquered Roman
colonies, to some of which citizenship was imparted." This
describes the policy from the first. These colonists, how-
ever, formed simple dependencies with local rights, but with-
out any of the political rights of citizens after the first settlers
had passed away. The later colonies planted in northern