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Italy, about thirty-four in all, were called Latin colonies, and
had no privilege of acquiring the right of eligibility to office
In case of a removal to Rome, but had a limited right of suf-
frage with other political rights and duties.    (Comp. Momm-
serT, i., 538, 440.)   The colonists in northern Italy, after the
establishment in B. C. 181, of Aquileia, a Latin colony, re-
ceived full Roman rights.    One of the measures of Caius
Gracchus, B. C. 122, was to send six thousand colonists to
make a new settlement on the site of Carthage,  with the
rights of a Roman burgess-colony.    This was important as
11 establishing the principle of emigration across the sea and
opening up for the Italian proletariat a permanent outlet/'
(Mommsen, iii., 138.)   Soon afterwards, Narbo in Gaul, be-
yond the Alps, was founded (B. C. 118).   During the predomi-
nance of Sulla, vast tracts in middle Italy were^ assigned to
soldiers, on the plan, however, of attaching them to a muni-
cipium already existing.   Julius Caesar pursued the policy of
converting the soldiers whose term of service was over into
agricultural colonists, and in order to empty Rome of its
poorer class he designed to send out beyond the seas eighty
thousand settlers of this description.   The triumvirs in B. C. 43,
promised to give up to their soldiers eighteen Italian towns,
and after the battle of Philippi one hundred and seventy
thousand men were to be provided for.     The people of the
towns just spoken of seem to have been forced to give up
their landed property in the way of a forced sale, but the
price was never paid out of the treasury.    Augustus planted
a large number of colonies in Africa, Sicily, Macedonia, both
Spains, Achaia, Asia, Syria,   Gallia Narbonnensis, Pisidia,
properly consisting of veteran soldiers,  and called military
colonies, but containing also numbers of the poorest class in
the city and in Italy.    Other emperors,   as  Claudius  and
Nerva, followed the example.    Trajan sent great multitudes
of men into Dacia which had been depopulated by the wars
of Decebalus.   Although these settlers came ex toto orbe Ro-
mano, as an old writer says, yet the power of Roman civiliza-
tion is expressed in the fact that the Walachian language