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the province of Asia. They have been divided, in respect to
their relations to the supreme power at Rome, into several
classes. The most privileged class was that of the free and
allied cities. They were such as had freely united them-
selves to the Romans by a formal league, and were but few
in number. Next to the cwitates liber & et fader a tee were the
liberce which derived their freedom not from a covenant but
from a law or a decree of the Roman senate. This was
given (to use Marquardt's expression), " as a reward for their
adhesion to Rome or their voluntary submission. Being tied
to the policy of Rome by their privileges, they secured the
influence of the Romans in a land as yet incompletely sub-
jugated." * And a motive forgiving the privilege, no doubt,
was to divide the land where they lay by an inequality of
, rights, so that the favored cities might dread any revolutions
that would detach them from the conquering power, and the
unity of the territory might be broken. The most essential
of their rights were exemption from a Roman garrison, free-
dom from a land tax, and jurisdiction under their own offi-
cers and by their own laws, but they were generally bound to
make certain payments to the Roman people. The/r^ and
untaxed cities were exempt .from tribute; but another class
of towns, the civitates stipendiaries were subject to taxation
at the discretion of the Romans. But even these were not
entirely deprived of their old institutions, of a popular
assembly, of magistrates elected by a domestic senate, and to
some degree of their own laws ; they were subject, however,
to the interference of the provincial governors. These vari-
ous conditions of the cities in conquered provinces, for the
minutiae of whose rights the archaeologists must be consulted,
show that the Romans pursued varying plans of policy, on
the whole leaving to the cities a greater or less enjoyment of
their former self-government. The same appears from the
lines of kings in Asia Minor, Judaea and the remoter east,
who were allowed to continue at the head of their kingdoms

*u. s. iii., i, 249.