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COMPOSITE  GOVERNMENTS.                         I 59

and Roman rights began to be universal, when they began
to be worthless.

Among modern nations, those which have been most com-

ies especially oosite in their governments are Spain and Eng-

Roman, Spanish and                                                                                                                     c

land.    The former,   before   the  great  war  of

succession, was sovereign of Naples, Sicily, the duchy of
Milan and the Spanish Netherlands, together with numerous
dependencies in the eastern and western parts of the world.
The latter, through her colonies, and her conquests of the
colonies of others, became mistress of a large part of North
America, of Southern Africa, of numerous islands in the
eastern, western, and southern seas, besides acquiring by
degrees the supremacy in a large part of India and a decisive
control over Indian lands as yet independent ; not to speak
of adjoining eastern territory which has fallen into her hands,
owing to her predominant position in India. After the trea-
ties of Utrecht and of Rastadt-Baden, the territories of Spain
in Europe outside of the Spanish peninsula, passed from
under her jurisdiction. As for England under the Stuarts,
there were two nations united under one king, with no other
political union between themó England itself, including
Ireland, and Scotland. The act of union, in 1707, joined
England and Scotland together under one sovereign, and one
parliament, but left to Scotland its own religious establish-
ment, laws and administration of justice. Ireland was fully
united with Great Britain in 1800, and thus the two islands
became politically one.
The colonies of the two countries were sent forth on a
greater scale than those of any nation since the days of Tyre
Colonies of Phoe- anc* ancient Greece.    The colonies of Phoenicia
nida'                 were the outgrowth of the commercial spirit, or
of pressure at home owing to invasions of Assyrian or
Babylonian kings. The absence of the political element in
these settlements tended to make them soon independent of
the mother-country ; but, as we have seen, Carthage absorbed