jg0 POLITICAL SCIENCE. again many of them into its system, always having commer- cial ends mainly in view. The first Greek colo- nies were composed of fugitives escaping from the effects of the Dorian invasion of Peloponnesus to the land where the lonians of the same race were already settled. Later colonies were caused by conquests on a smaller scale, as the Messenians joined the people of Chalcis in their mi- gration to southern Italy, when the Spartans had conquered their land. So also the lonians of Teos and Phocsea left their homes on account of the Persian invasion, the former for Abdera in Thrace, the latter for Massilia in Gaul. Other colonies owed their origin to internal dissensions, or to the desire in oligarchies of getting rid of a poor class of citizens, or to commercial causes.* The Athenian clcrnchite were colonies sent to places inhabited by Greeks before, and often to revolted places which had been resubjugatecl. They derived their names from the portions or lots assigned by the Athe- nian community to citizens who wished to emigrate. The motives were the security of the reacquircd influence and relief from over-population at home. The Athenian citizens joining these colonies were not expected ever to throw up their connection with the mother-country, and remained Athenian citizens. Most of the colonies were planted, ac- cording to a remark of Niebuhr, in places before unoccupied, unlike those which Rome sent forth ; and into most of them a diversity of elements was received from the first. This, with the general tendency of the Greeks towards self-govern- ing, independent, city-communities, led to separations of the colonies from the mother-countries, which had sent them out under religious auspices, and perhaps with public aid. The Roman colonies, as we have seen, were chiefly of a spa^ colonies. Political and public nature, like advanced posts in a territory not as yet thoroughly Romanized But the Spanish colonies, and, in a degree, the English, had *Comp Schom Gr. Alterth., ii., 8r omv., ami K. F, Hermann, 73' ' ^ , u*Ğre 1S a rich colteioğ of particulars. For comp. Boeckh, Staatsh., book iii,, 8 18.