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jg0                            POLITICAL SCIENCE.
again many of them into its system, always having commer-
cial ends mainly in view.    The first Greek colo-
nies were composed of fugitives escaping from
the effects of the Dorian invasion of Peloponnesus  to  the
land where the lonians of the same race were already settled.
Later colonies were caused by conquests on a smaller scale,
as the Messenians joined the people of Chalcis in  their mi-
gration to southern Italy, when the Spartans had conquered
their land.    So also the lonians of Teos and Phocsea left
their homes on account of the Persian invasion, the former
for Abdera in Thrace, the latter for Massilia in Gaul.     Other
colonies owed their origin to internal dissensions, or to the
desire in oligarchies of getting rid of a poor class of citizens,
or to commercial causes.*   The Athenian clcrnchite were
colonies sent to places inhabited by Greeks before, and often
to revolted places which had been resubjugatecl.  They derived
their names from the portions or lots assigned by the Athe-
nian community to citizens who wished to emigrate.    The
motives were the security of the reacquircd influence and
relief from over-population at home.    The Athenian citizens
joining these colonies were not expected ever to throw up
their connection with the   mother-country,   and remained
Athenian citizens.    Most of the colonies were planted, ac-
cording to a remark of Niebuhr, in places before unoccupied,
unlike those which Rome sent forth ; and into most of them
a diversity of elements was received from the  first.    This,
with the general tendency of the Greeks towards self-govern-
ing, independent, city-communities, led to separations of the
colonies from the mother-countries, which had sent them out
under religious auspices, and perhaps with public aid.
The Roman colonies, as we have seen, were chiefly of a
spa^ colonies. Political and public nature, like advanced posts
in a territory not as yet thoroughly Romanized
But the Spanish colonies, and, in a degree, the English, had
*Comp   Schom Gr. Alterth., ii., 8r omv., ami K. F, Hermann,
73'    ' ^   , u*«re 1S a rich colteio» of particulars. For
comp. Boeckh, Staatsh., book iii,, 8 18.