CONFEDERATIONS. 167 there may be a perpetual league or alliance.* A federal government implies much more. On the one hand, says Mr. Freeman, in his still unfinished work on this subject (p. 3), "to form a federal government each of the members must be wholly independent in those matters which concern each member only. On the other hand, all must be subject to a common power in those matters which concern the whole body of men less collectively." Thus, the two poles of a fed- eral government are independent action of the members in certain things, and a central power or government which, in certain things, is equally independent. This central power or government of the federal union must, in the nature of the case, be the result of an agreement of the parts with one an- other ; but, when founded, it no longer depends on the desire of any one member to continue in the union. From the nature of the case the central government is not created for a particular emergency, but for the attainment of perpetual ends. It might, indeed, be conceivable that such a govern- ment, or indeed any other, should expire by its own limita- tion after the lapse of a half-century, just as there have been terminable treaties of peace ; but the central government has the same reasons for enduring which two countries like Eng- land and Scotland had in forming a union. From its forma- tion, if it be a real government, that is, if it have a sphere of its own to act in like other states, and a power of its own like other states, it is an independent political entity. How does the relation of such a federal government towards the states which are its members differ from the re- lations between a state and a municipality ? The answer must be that in no sense is a self-governing municipality independent. Its charter, if it have any, or its duties and rights, as defined by a general law, proceed from state power, and may be modified for failure to fulfil its duties, or for great state purposes. It is simply within the competence of the * These words, it may be remarked, are from the same root, ligo, to bind; alliance from adligo, through the French allier, and league from ligo, through Fr. ligue.