POLITICAL SCIENCE. dominant in one in another has hardly any votaries, this is one separating cause, which added to others may break up the union. On the other hand, if the same Christian de- nominations are spread everywhere, this will be a potent cause for continuing the union, for the intercourse of sects is a closer bond in a country than is generally imagined. Again, the same general conception of liberty and the same institutions have a great binding force. For us to live under English institutions, to have the municipal and special forms of rights that our ancestors had, facilitated our coming to- gether very greatly. There was one institution, slavery, that divided us—not indeed at first so much as afterwards, when it was seen to be in violent opposition to our principles of liberty; and this wedge was strong enough to divide the republic. How jar small monarchies, or governments of various kinds near one another, speaking the same language, and having nearly the same laws, can be united in a permanent union of the more compact sort, may be made a question. We shall consider it when we come to the forms of the Ger- manic body. We only remark here that monarchies, espe- cially if not of the more limited sort, will naturally dread parting with political power; they will prefer a league of states to a state formed out of a league, and under such a constitution will not readily consent to any great supervision being exercised over them, nor to the strict control of supreme courts set up by a league. The earliest attempts to create some sort of federal union would naturally stop at giving to a central government or ad* ministration the least power consistent with the purposes for which the union was formed. For no existing state likes to part with power ; and the city*governments, accustomed to do all political acts by the immediate action of the citizens and through agents of their own, would be slow to trust other states—even states closely allied to them in language and institutions-with a check on their power, unless it were terminable at will.