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The principal confederations of this period were the Achae-
an and the ^Etolian leagues.    I shall give the
The later leagues. particulars oniy Of tlie former.*   This was not
the first of the later Greek confederations. In B. C, 371
Megalopolis was founded in order to unite Arcadia, and this
measure did serious detriment to Lacedaemon. About the
same time, Jason of Pherae united all Thessaly for a time, but
as a tyrant, not as the head of a political union. The Boeo-
tian league, consisting at one time of fourteen cities, was
quite ancient. But Thebes, which, as early as B. C. 424, had
two votes in this body, and in 378, three, aspired to the su-
premacy. The constitution of the league seems to have
been this : twelve presidents chosen annually, representing
the twelve cities of a certain period (afterwards reduced to
eleven), seem to have had equal authority, and four senates
(Thucyd., v., 38) which had tht entire power in the last resort,
were the consulting boards. The league was dissolved in the
Persian war, and restored by Sparta in 457 B. C,, in order to
raise up a centre of power against Thebes. The place of
gathering was probably the temple of Athene Itonia near
Coronaea, and there the Pamboeotian festival was celebrated.
The strife of oligarchy and democracy, the ascendency of
Thebes, the interference of Sparta, disturbed this league and
made it of little importance in the later times of the Greek
nation, f
The ^Etolians, an insignificant people when Greece  was
In its glory, half Greek in their language and habits, with a
country divided into cantons or districts, may have had  a
union of its tribes and cantons from quite early times ; and
.                             k
* For Greek confederations, comp. St. Ooix, Anc. Gowv, F&L, and
others cited in K. F. Hermann, i.,  177-189, esp. 185, n. i ; Schitoi.
u. s., ii., 101-114; Brandstatter, die geschichtcn das Aetol. fondes,
etc. (1844), and Mr. E. AL Freeman's Hist, of Fed. Gov., voL i,
S, P- 77 onw.a work which needs no praise,
fComp. esp. K. F. Herm., i.,  179-180.