POLITICAL SCIENCE. 208, The principal confederations of this period were the Achae- an and the ^Etolian leagues. I shall give the The later leagues. particulars oniy Of tlie former.* This was not the first of the later Greek confederations. In B. C, 371 Megalopolis was founded in order to unite Arcadia, and this measure did serious detriment to Lacedaemon. About the same time, Jason of Pherae united all Thessaly for a time, but as a tyrant, not as the head of a political union. The Boeo- tian league, consisting at one time of fourteen cities, was quite ancient. But Thebes, which, as early as B. C. 424, had two votes in this body, and in 378, three, aspired to the su- premacy. The constitution of the league seems to have been this : twelve presidents chosen annually, representing the twelve cities of a certain period (afterwards reduced to eleven), seem to have had equal authority, and four senates (Thucyd., v., 38) which had tht entire power in the last resort, were the consulting boards. The league was dissolved in the Persian war, and restored by Sparta in 457 B. C,, in order to raise up a centre of power against Thebes. The place of gathering was probably the temple of Athene Itonia near Coronaea, and there the Pamboeotian festival was celebrated. The strife of oligarchy and democracy, the ascendency of Thebes, the interference of Sparta, disturbed this league and made it of little importance in the later times of the Greek nation, f The ^Etolians, an insignificant people when Greece was •In its glory, half Greek in their language and habits, with a country divided into cantons or districts, may have had a union of its tribes and cantons from quite early times ; and . k * For Greek confederations, comp. St. Ooix, Anc. Gowv, F&L, and others cited in K. F. Hermann, i., §§ 177-189, esp. 185, n. i ; Schitoi. u. s., ii., 101-114; Brandstatter, die geschichtcn das Aetol. fondes, etc. (1844), and Mr. E. AL Freeman's Hist, of Fed. Gov., voL i, S, P- 77 onw.—a work which needs no praise, fComp. esp. K. F. Herm., i., §§ 179-180.