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CONFEDERATIONS.                                 181
they maintained the spirit of independence even when the
greater part of Greece fell under the control of the Macedo-
nians. It was this spirit of independence which led them to
form a more extended confederation, which was joined by
their neighbors on the east, and by states in the Peloponnesus,
in the islands, and elsewhere. The league decided in ques-
tions of war, alliance, and peace; it had a stated gathering
once a year—at which, as well as at the extraordinary gath-
erings, all the citizens of the confederates were entitled to be
present—and a council or senate of the league, which was a
permanent institution. This senate seems to have borne the
name pf apocleti, and another board, the synedri, may have
been a committee selected from it. What their power was,
cannot be ascertained with exactness, but they felt them-
selves obliged to bring some matters of business before spe-
cial meetings of the assembled confederates. The administra-
tive officers of the league were elected in the regular autum-
nal meetings. At the head stood a strategus> who presided
both in the general meetings and in those of the councils.
Next to him ranked the commander of horse, and the secre-
«                                                          '
tary (grammateus).
The rude .^Etolians did not well agree with the finer
Greeks, and after their wars with Antigonus Doson and
Philip (B. C. 229-220), taking sides with the Romans first and
against them afterwards, were forced in 189 to make a league
which virtually rendered them subjects of the Roman state.*
The Achseans, driven from their homes in the interior of
The Achsean ,t'ie Peloponnesus by the invading Dorians, ex-
league.                 pelled the lonians from the northern strip of
coast, and thenceforth, through the times when Greece was
in its bloom, were a second-rate collection of city-states,
twelve in number at first, lying aside from the main stream
of Grecian movements. They represent the noble race who
figure in the Homeric poems, and were for an uncertain
length of time under the government of twelve kings, one of
*Comp. Schomann, ii.; 201-206,