POLITICAL SCIENCE. • whom was superior to the rest. After the kings, came mod- erate democracies without a noble class. They had some kind of league between themselves, but not so close a one as to prevent their taking different sides in the Peloponnesian war.* When the Macedonians became predominant in Greece, the Achasans fell under their control, either receiving garri- sons of that power into their cities, or obeying tyrants who were- devoted to its interests. The league or union was intermitted during this time until 279, when the invasion of Greece by the Gauls, and the confusion in Macedonia, before • Antigonus Gonatas secured his power, presented a favorable opportunity for its reconstruction. This was effected by the four most western of the cities, and was joined within five years by three others — JEgium, which expelled its Macedoni- an garrison, Bura, and Ceryneia, which were either freed from or forsaken by their tyrants. Three others, — all that remain- ed of the twelve old states,— ^Egeira, Pellene, and Leontium, came in somewhat later, f The latter was not a member of the old confederacy, and Ceryneia succeeded to the place of JE<r&, The federal constitution in its new shape was formed about 2744 Like the members of previous leagues, the members retained their city assemblies and magistrates, and the same arrangement was of course maintained when other city-states were admitted into the confederacy ; nor was there any reor- ganization of local districts subordinate to each state, but, as Mr. Freeman points out, the dependent cantons of states within the league had no direct share in its concerns. Yet they may have beeridemes, containing citizens with full rights, like those of Attica, Mr. Freeman regards the league as a staatenbund and not * An evidence that the league subsisted at the time when Helice was overwhelmed by an earthquake, is furnished by Strabo, b. viii. s, p. 385, a passage referred to by Mr. Freeman and others. It shows also that the people of Helice would not do what the asked of them by vote. so JK, F. Herm. says 280, L, § 188.