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CONFEDERATIONS.                                187
gether with the general, had a voice in calling extraordinary
meetings, appears from Polybius (v.,  I ; xxiii.,  10).    That
unanimity on their part was not essential, is also established.
The general was the great man of the confederation, first
in war, first in peace.    The whole history of the
The general                   .                      *                                                       J
time in southern Greece revolves around men
who filled this office, such as Aratus, Lydiadas, Philopoemen.
The general presided in the assemblies, and had the power
to summon extraordinary meetings, at which only those sub-
jects could be laid before the league for which they had been

gathered together. The powers of the general and pf the
ten demiurgi in regard to the business to be brought before
an assembly are not positively to be gathered from the an-
cient authorities; but in one instance, where the question
related to alliance with the Romans (Livy, xxxii., 22), while
five of the ten declared themselves ready to bring that sub-
ject before the council and put it to vote, an equal number
refused, on the ground that it was against a law either for the
magistrates to refer, or for the council to decree, anything
which was contrary to the Macedonian alliance. Here we have
rules binding the presiding general and the board of ten in a
special case, and this may imply that in general their action
was more free. In the instance mentioned, that one of the
five who refused to lay the subject of an alliance with the
Romans before the council withdrew his opposition ; and the
measure was carried, it would seem, against the law, .much
to the dissatisfaction of some states, which left the meeting
before the votes were taken (Livy, u. s.; comp. Freeman,
The general, according to Plutarch (vit. Arat.,  24, vit.
Cleom.,  T5)> could not be chosen for two successive years,
but could be re-elected one year after the expiration of his
office, and so after any number of intervals. Accordingly,
Aratus was elected about twelve times in observance of this
rtrle, being when out of office in fact, as Plutarch expresses
it, a magistrate.*
* Comp. Mr* Freeman's note at the end of his eighth chapter.