CONFEDERATIONS. ^ 189 was felt for provisions other than must have existed before the formation of the league, such as free access of complain- ants to a defendant's courts in another town, and courts of arbitration between states, may well be doubted. So much, however, is certain, that offences against the league, especially maladministration of men in public trusts, could be taken notice of and punished by the council—whether after trial, before the assembly or the senate, or some separate court, does not appear. The examples of such judgments which are to be met with occur in the later and worse days of the confederacy ; nor are they entirely clear in their details. One instance is where, after the death of the Spartan tyrant Nabis (B. C., 192), the Spartans are forced to join the league, on which occasion it is said that the Achaeans gave strict judgments against them, which seems to mean nothing more than that measures of some severity relating to them were adopted by the council at one of its meetings, and not by a court. (Pausan., vii., § 8, 5.) Not long after this the council imposes on certain disaffected Spartans the penalty of death. (Ib., vii., § 9, 3-) Again, about B. C. 150, on account of the affairs of Oropus (see Freeman, ch. ix., p. 688, onw.), Calli- crates accused the general Menalcidas of crime, when his year of office had expired—which last particular shows that the chief magistrate could not be prosecuted during office. (Pausan., vii., § 12, 2.) Another magistrate, the general of the year 149, having failed to take Sparta when this seemed to be practicable, was brought before the council on trial and fined in the sum of fifty talents, which being unable to pay he went into exile, (ib., vii., § 13, S-) This is all that I have succeeded in finding that relates to public trials : in all cases the council itself, or some component part of the council, listened to the charges and gave the verdict.* Such are the particulars of the constitution of a league, Results of the which arose from motives of self-defence, was league. pushed by its successes beyond its original humble and local plans, got involved in the affairs of Rome * A passage of Polybius bearing on courts will be noticed below.