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CONFEDERATIONS.                                193
limits of the ten cities, it came into conflict with powers with
which it could not cope, save by making dangerous alliances,
and it flourished in an age when a mighty enemy from the
west was at hand ready to swallow up every independent
institution. It failed, first> because Greek political habits
could not admit of such a form of polity on a large scale, if on
any scale ; next, because it was in a manner forced to out-
, grow its original institutions, and because these institutions
were not well enough compacted; and finally, because the
enemies, at once, of the Achaean polity and of Greek inde-
pendence, were too strong.
A small confederation outside of Greece, in a comparatively
secure and obscure position, deserves a passing
The Lycian league.                                                                     .    .
notice, on account of its giving an example of
a better type of confederation than had been contrived be-
fore. The account of it in Strabo (xiv., pp. 664,665)—see
Mr. Freemen, 208-217—is as follows : " The systema or con-
federation of the Lycians consist of twenty-three cities, which
come together in a common council through their delegates at
any city which they see fit to make the place of meeting. The
largest cities have three votes each, those next to them in
population, two, those in the third rank, one." Strabo men
tions six cities as the largest, and probably these only have
the three votes apiece.* " The contributions and other ser-
vices/' he adds, " are in the same ratio with the votes. In a
council a Lyciarch is first chosen, then the other magistrates of
the confederation. Courts of justice also are appointed by
common vote (or for common purposes). Formerly, they con-
sulted on war, peace, and alliance, but, naturally, now that
they are under the Romans, they can do this no longer. In like
manner also judges and magistrates are chosen in proportion to
the votes from each of the cities/' This last sentence cannot
mean that the town judges and officers were appointed in the
general council, which would be contrary to all the analogies
* With the help of coins, the remaining cities of the Lycian league
can all or nearly all be made put. See Marquardt, Rom. Staats-
verwalt. L, p. 219.
VOL. II.—13