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of free constitutions ; but either that the appointments made
by the league followed the number of votes of each city, or
that there were federal magistrates and judges in each, varying
in number with the votes which it cast. The first seerris to be
the meaning. Strabo goes back to the choices made in the
council, and adds as an after- thought, that the offices are dis-
tributed — naturally, excepting the Lyciarch— in such a way
that every town should have its share according to its scale
of population.

Here three things are worthy of notice : the absence of a
popular assembly meeting at the same time with the council,
which was a very bad feature of the Achaean league, but
somewhat more endurable in a smaller district ; the varying
number of votes in the council, which would certainly tend
to allay jealousy and the fear of a hegemony within a confed-
eration ; and the federal courts. The league continued under
Roman supremacy until, in the reign of Claudius, A.D, £3,
Lycia was constituted with Pamphylia into a Roman prov-
ince. It seems for little while afterwards to have had a new
enjoyment of its freedom.

Passing over a long tract of time, we come next to the
Germanic confed- German confederations.    This grew out of the
erations.             German feudal kingdom with the imperial power *
attached, which was gradually weakened by its conflicts with •
the spiritual power, and by the concessions to the princes and
other magnates. The election of the king, consequent on
the failure of the Carolingian family, and the attempts of the
feudatories and of the pope to prevent any family from be-
coming too mighty, greatly aided the approach of the princes
towards territorial sovereignty which marked the German
empire, after other parts of Europe were beginning to be
nationalized under a central authority. In the thirteenth cen-
tury the German realm was so disintegrated after the death
of the last emperor of the Hohenstaufifen family, that some
writers call it no longer a feudal monarchy but a republic,