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196                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.
"The estates of the empire are to enjoy a right of voting in
all deliberations on affairs of the empire, especially when
laws are to be enacted or interpreted, war declared, taxes
laid, levies or supplies for troops ordered, new fortifications
built on public account within the territory of the estates, or
old ones strengthened in their garrisons. Also when treaties
of peace are to be made or other matters of this kind trans-
acted, none of these things or any thing like them shall ever
be done or allowed save by the free suffrage and consent
within the diet of all the estates of the empire. Especially,
however, the right of making treaties with each other and
with foreign states shall be forever free, for their own con-
servation and security, to the estates, all and singular ; yet
so that treaties of this kind be not against the emperor, the
empire and the- public peace, and especially against this
treaty; and they shall be made with a saving of the obliga-
tion by oath, whereby each estate is bound to the emperor
and the empire" (Art. viii.,  2). By another article the
emperor promises to hold a diet within six months after the
ratification of the peace, and as often afterwards as public
advantage or necessity shall require ( 3). By another still,
the free towns are confirmed in aH their privileges. In order
to produce quiet between Catholic and Protestant states, the
principle is adopted of having an equal number of Catholic
and Protestant assessors in the courts ; and where the states
cannot be considered as one body, so that those belonging to
the two religions constitute separate parties, the majority is
not to decide, but the two factions must come to an amicable
arrangement as best they can (Artv., 51, 52, and on-
By these measures the two religions were equalized, the
emperor's power was balanced or made null through the
opposition of the members of the diet, the members of the
diet were left free to make treaties with whom they pleased,
and a Protestant head, counteracting the Catholic Austrian
power, was rendered possible. The empire itself and the
emperor became more insignificant than before. In the en-