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CONFEDERATIONS.                                199
relating to particular points need not detain us, except the
thirteenth, which is, that in all the states of the confederation
there shall be a constitution of estates (stande), which seems
to prevent the possibility of reforms in particular states in the
direction of equality of condition.
1    The federal act was short and incomplete.    An appendix
to it under the name of " a final act of the con-
ferences held at Vienna to develop and consol-
idate the organization of the German confederation," after
being discussed by representatives at Vienna in 1819 and 1820,
was accepted by a plenum in a diet held at Frankfort in 1820,
as a fundamental law, of equal validity with the constitution
itself. This had been preceded by a congress of nine states,
held at Carlsbad in 1819, where sundry defects of the constitu-
tion had been complained of. A part of the articles of this
schlussact are taken up with defining the relations of the
states, somewhat in a scholastic way. " As to its interior
relations," such are the words of Art. ii., "this confederation
forms a body of states independent of one another, but bound
by rights and duties freely stipulated. As to its external re-
lations, it constitutes a collective power, established on the
principle of political unity." "The constitution is, by its
very principle, indissoluble ; hence, no one of its members has
the liberty to withdraw from it" (Art. v.). New members
can be admitted only by a unanimous vote. (From Art. vi.)
"The plenipotentiaries sent to the diet are individually respon-
sible to their sovereigns (Art. vii?.). The general council
or plenum is only convened in the cases mentioned in the
constitution, and also for the declaration of war, the ratifica-
tion of peace, and the admission of new members into the
union. When it is doubtful whether the business is of such
a nature as properly to come before the plenum^ the ordinary
council must decide the point (Art xii.). Unanimity is nec-
essary in the plenum when the vote relates to organic institu-
tions, and if the decision is favorable the deliberations on de-
tails are to be held in the ordinary council (Art. xiv.). Other
articles provide for the maintenance of peace within the con-