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200                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.
federate states, and the settlement of disputes by a commission
of conciliation or by a court of arbitration, for the aid to be fur-
nished, and the way in which it is to be furnished to govern-
ments for the maintenance of internal order. Measures for the
execution of the laws and resolutions of the diet are to be taken
in the name of the entire confederation; and for this purpose
one or two governments not interested in the affair shall be
delegated to do what is necessary, the diet determining the
number of troops and the length of time for which they are
to be employed (Art. xxxiv.), The confederation possesses
the rights of making war and peace, and of negotiation in gen-
eral." Yet, in accordance with the object for which it is found-
ed, it makes use of these rights only for its own defence, for the
maintenance of German independence, and of safety from with-
out, as well as of the independence and inviolability of each
of the confederate states (xxxvi.). A number of articles re-
late to measures for defence, to legal contingents of the sev-
eral states, to their right to do more than is thus required of
them, if circumstances require it If a member is at war for
possessions outside of the territory, the confederation remains
a stranger to its movements (xlvi.). When the confedera-
tion is engaged in a foreign war, no state can make a treaty
with the foreign belligerent (xlviii.). The diet has power
to determine the amount of expenses—ordinary as well as ex-
traordinary, to apportion these expenses to the several states,
and to regulate and supervise the collections (lii.). Existing
constitutions cannot be changed except in the constitutional
way (Ivi.). The diet is authorized to guarantee a constitution
at the request of a member of the confederation.
It will be evident, from a consideration of these articles,
that this instrument did not go much further in the direction
of a close union than the German nation had gone before.
The diet made no political treaty with foreign powers; it
scarcely contemplated the possibility of a war between the
states of the union ; it did not supersede the relations of the
separate states to foreign powers ; it had no army aside from
the contingents of the states, had a limited range of powers,