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204                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.
German nations, navigation, payment of consular representa-
tives, roads, navigable routes for defence or other general in-
terests, navigation of public rivers and duties collected on
them, posts and telegraphs, arrangements touching reciprocal
execution of judgments between the states, legislation on
contracts, penal and commercial law, bills of exchange and
civil procedure (where citizens of more than one state were
concerned), the military and naval organization of the confed-
eracy, medicinal and veterinary police.
Important articles relate to other subjects, such as federal
finances, offences against the confederation, change of consti-
tution, and relations with Southern Germany. The effective
peace-force of the body is fixed until 1871 at one per cent, of
the population as it existed in 1867, and each state is required
to raise two hundred and twenty-five thalers for every one of
its soldiers in the federal army. This is under the command
of the king of Prussia as " federal chief of war." Changes in
the constitution cannot be made without a majority of two-
thirds of the votes represented in the federal council.
Under this constitution the North-German states entered
- (iermanempireof into the war with France, and were joined in it
x871-                 by the Southern States still having no political
union. At Versailles, representatives of the latter appeared
to negotiate for admission into the northern confederation.
The treaties of admission were laid before the diet in Novem-
ber, 1870, and were accepted in the constitutional way. To
Bavaria several concessions were granted. It was part of the
plan that the king of Prussia should receive the title of em-
peror, which, being offered to him and accepted Jan. 8, 1871,
on the territory of France, a constitution for the German em-
pire came into force April 16, 1871.
Tnis constitution differs so little from the North-German of
which we have just spoken, that a very short account of it is
all that is needed. The presidency belongs still to the king
of Prussia, who wears the title of German emperor (Deutscher
Kaiser). The relation of the parties is that of a confederation
(bund), yet the bund has the name of the German kingdom