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2o6                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.
nearly the same as in the North-German confederation. The
military service rests on every German, and cannot be dis-
charged by deputy. The ratio of costs and troops is to be
made equal among the states in the confederation ; at present
the Prussian system is to be followed in most respects. The
emperor is head of the army, all the officers take the oath to
him; superior officers of contingents, and commanders of
fortresses are appointed by him ; generals, and officers taking
the place of generals, need his approval; but in other cases
the states, i. e., their princes or senates, appoint the officers
of their contingent. The budget is annual and fixed by law,
yet the supplies can, in particular cases, be granted for a
longer period. In cases of extraordinary need, a loan or a
guaranty can be authorized by law. Attacks made on the
existence, integrity, safety, or constitution of the German
kingdom, as well as injuries and insults to the legislative bodies
or to members of them, or to other constitutional organs in
the exercise of their duties, are made punishable in each
state just as similar acts are punished which are committed
against the state or its officers. Controversies between dif-
ferent states of the confederation can be referred, on request
of one of the parties, to the federal council for adjustment, pro-
vided they are not of a private nature, and are thus capable of
being settled by the competent tribunals. Constitutional
questions, within those of the states which have not furnished
themselves with courts for the decision of such cases, may be
settled at the request of one of the parties in an amicable way
by the federal council, or, if this cannot be brought to a suc-
cessful issue, by a general law.
These two constitutions are a great step forward towards a
firm and close confederation. Yet the dangers and defects
in them both, in that of the empire, however, to a less degree
than in that of the North-German confederation, are apparent.
The principal are these : First, the predominance of Prussia,
which, in the first of the two constitutions, by its seventeen
votes in the bimdesrath, with its influence over smaller north-
ern principalities, could easily carry every measure which it