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Full text of "Political Science Of The State"

CONFEDERATIONS.                                  209
and a large part of his nobles. After another defeat (1389)
at Nafels, the league was acknowledged by the former sover-
eign house, which renounced all earlier jurisdiction, retaining
only their hereditary and certain other revenues. Appenzell
came into the union in 1411, and a fifty years' peace was
made with the duke of Austria in 1412 ; notwithstanding
which, when the duke was placed under the ban for his assist-
ance ^rendered to Pope John XXIII. during the council of
Constance, the confederates joined in the war against him,
on the emperor's promise that they should hold all the terri-
tory they could wrest from him (1415). The looseness of
the federal, principle appears on many occasions: an early
one was the civil war between Zurich and Schwytz, in refer-
ence to the county of Toggenburg, after the line of counts
ran out in 1436. Both sought, by various means, to unite
and incorporate this territory with their own, and Zurich did
not scruple to make an alliance with Austria for this purpose ;
but the confederates were against her, and she was compelled
to submit to terms.
In the fifteenth century the confederacy was enlarged by al-
liances with Freiburg, Solothurn (Soleure), Basel, and Schaff-
hausen (1501) ; and in the latter third of the century, the Swiss
becoming involved, through the arts of Louis XL of France,
in wars with Charles the Bold of Burgundy, became re-
nowned through Europe for their victories over his troops at
Granson (1476), at Murten (Morat) nearly three months after-
ward, and at Nancy (1477), where the duke met his death.
From this time they came into the practice of helping in the
various wars of France, and of the emperor, especially in Italy,
and treaties were made by separate cantons for this purpose.
The early spread of the Protestant reformation divided the
Swiss, led to civil wars—such as that in which Zwingli lost his
life (1531) at Cappel, that of 1656, terminated by the peace
of Baden, and to the war between Bern and Zurich on the
one part and five Catholic cantons on the other (1712), in
which the latter were obliged, as the price of peace, to give
up their part of the sovereignty over the county of Baden
VOL. II.—14