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CONFEDERATIONS.                                211
of part of its territory on the plea of rectifying boundaries.
Quarrels arose as they have done since between Basel-town
and Basel-country. A difficulty between Bern and the pays
de Vaud (Lausanne) gave a pretext for interference to the
French republicans, on the ground of an old treaty by which
the crown of France had this mediating position. In the
end the pays de Vaud declared its independence ; Luzern,
Schaffhausen, Zurich altered their forms of government,
making concessions to the dependent people in the country.
Several towns were occupied by French troops, the Swiss
confederacy was' pronounced to be dissolved, a Helvetic re-
public was manufactured (1798), popular sovereignty was
introduced under a common government, and new divisions
of the territory into eighteen cantons were made, without
entire regard to former cantonal boundaries. To all this
flood of changes the old cantons, where Swiss independence
was born, offered a heroic but vain resistance.
There was no want of constitution-making at this period,
and as little possibility of keeping a constitution once formed
from speedy death. First appears a project of a constitution
of March, 1798, which served with modifications as the
groundwork of another sketched in April of the same year.
This latter was prevented, by the outbreak of war between
France and Austria in 1799, from taking root. It was sug-
gested by the French in August, 1798, that the Grisons should
be invited to form an independent canton. Another consti-
tution of May 29, 1801, approved of by Bonaparte, then first
consul, was acceptable to few in its political and territorial
arrangements. It comprised the Grisons, united Thurgau
with Schaffhausen, and made many other changes. Other
constitutions succeeded, in Oct., 1801, Feb., 1802, and July,
1802, which had no vitality. At this time French troops
were quartered in the country. On their withdrawal anarchy
and civil strife arose, the smaller cantons wishing to go back
to the arrangements of 1798, while Zurich and Bern were in
a condition of armed conflict. The government was driven
to Lausanne from Bern by armed insurgents from Aargau,