214 POLITICAL SCIENCE. This representative committee is chosen by six circles of can- tons each in turn. The tagsateung gives the requisite instruc- tions to these federal representatives, and fixes the duration of their duties, which cease, of course, when there is a new tagsatzung* When this assembly is not in session, the vorort has the charge of federal affairs within the limits existing before 1798. The cantons of Zurich, Bern, and Luzern, in turn for two years each take the presidence implied in the word vorort. Cloisters and chapters are allowed to continue, but are subject to taxation, like private property. The Hel- vetic national debt is acknowledged. Between 1814 and 1816 most of the cantons revised or made Constitutions of over ^&x constitutions. Meyer von Knonau Cantons. classifies these * under ten heads, the smaller cantons six in number being democratic> .Bern and Freiburg " patricio-aristocratic;" Zurich and Soleure, Lucern and Basel, " aristocratic-representative," the two former with con- siderable political weight given to their chief town, the latter with less; Schaffhausen and Geneva, representative, with some weight of the capital; the Grisons and Valais " democratic federative/1 etc. In 1831, after the overthrow of the old Bourbon dynasty, the constitutions were generally submitted to revision, and the changes were all in a democratic direction. But the federal constitution was not altered until the next great revolutionary storm which swept over so many countries of Europe in 1848. This constitution of 1848 brings Switzerland near, if not Swiss constitution ^nto* ^e class of Bundcstaaten. The cantons, *I848< it declares (Art. 3) to be sovereign, so far as their sovereignty is not limited by the federal constitution, * Cited by Politz in his Europ. Verfass. seit 1789, iiu, 213. The third volume of this work is more than half taken up with the different federal and cantonal constitutions, until 1831. The federal constitution of 1848 which I have access to is contained in Ghillany and Schnitzler's Manuel Diplom., ii., 385 and onw. The constitution of 1874? April 19, I have in M. Antoine Morin's Precis de THistoire Politique de laSuisse, V., 331, and onw. The three first volunies of this work were not at my cqmmand when this sketch was first written. Nor have I access to Bluntschli's Staats-u.-Rechts-Gesch v. d. Schweiz.