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CONFEDERATIONS.                                 215
and they exercise, as such, all those rights which are not
transferred to the federal power. All Swiss are equal before
the law, no relations of dependence can exist, nor privileges
of place, birth, family or person (Art. 4). " The confedera-
tion guarantees to the cantons their territory, their sove-
reignty as limited by Article 3, their constitutions, the free-
dom and rights of the people, the constitutional rights of the
people together with the rights and functions which the people
has conferred on the magistrates (Art. 5)- The cantons are
bound to ask of the confederation the guaranty of their con-
stitutions, and this is given, provided these contain nothing
contrary to the federal constitution, if -their form be republi-
can, representative or democratic, and if they have been ac-
cepted by the people and can be revised, when the absolute
majority of the citizens demand it." The cantons are for-
bidden to form political leagues and conventions with one
another, but may enter into agreements in respect to matters
of legislation, to judicial affairs and administration, which
must however be laid before the authorities of the federal
union ; and these may forbid their execution, if they are
found to contain anything that runs counter to the confeder-
ation or to the rights of other cantons. If they do not, the
cantons concerned in these agreements are entitled to call
on the confederation to give aid in carrying them into effect
(Art. 7). The confederation alone can declare war, conclude
peace, and enter into leagues and conventions, especially into
such as relate to customs and trade with foreign countries;
but the several cantons may make conventions in matters of
public economy, police and neighborly intercourse with a
foreign country, provided the same be not inconsistent with
federal obligations (Arts. 8, 9). The confederation is not
authorized to keep up a standing army, and no canton or part
of a divided canton [like Basel, or Appenzell] can keep on
foot more than three hundred troops, not including a gen-
darmerie (landjager). (Art. 13.) The cantons must abstain,
when disputes arise between them, from vindicating their
own rights, and from arming for this purpose, and must sub-