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2l6                            POLITICAL SCIENCE.
mit to the decision of the federal power (Art. 14). Aid must
be given to a canton in danger by other cantons which are
apprised of it by the cantonal government, and in like man-
ner by the cantons to the federal government when their aid
is invoked (Art. 16). The army of the confederation, formed
by the contingents of the cantons, consists of three per cent, of
the Swiss population of each canton ; of a reserve half as large ;
and in times of danger the remaining forces (the landwehr)
of the cantons may be called out. The scale determining
the quota of each canton must be revised every twenty years
(Art. 19). The confederation has power given to it in Art.
20, to secure uniformity and readiness for service in the mili-
tary forces. It is also authorized to build or aid in construct-
ing public works (Art. 21), to found a university and a poly-
technic school (Art 22), to control customs and duties on
objects imported, exported, or carried through the country—
of which each canton is to receive four batzen or less than
three cents for each inhabitant (Arts. 24 to 26). The cantons
(Art. 32), can introduce no new tolls (Art 31) The posts,
roads and bridges, in maintaining which the confederation
has an interest, the coining of money, weights and measures
on the principles of the existing arrangements for this pur-
pose, the manufacture and sale of gunpowder, belong exclu-
sively to the legislative competence of the confederation
(Arts. 33 to 39). All Swiss are entitled to settle in any of
the cantons on certain conditions (Art. 41), and settlement
gives all rights of actual citizens except that of voting in
communal affairs and a share in the property of communes
and corporations, etc. (Art. 41). Every citizen of a canton is
a citizen of Switzerland, but no one can exercise his rights
in more than one canton (Arts. 42, 43). " The free exercise
of divine worship is secured to the acknowledged Christian
confessions in the whole extent of the confederation. But it
is reserved for the cantons as well as for the confederation to
take the proper steps in regard to the maintenance of public
order and of peace between the confessions." (Art. 44.)
The freedom of the press is secured, but the confederation